The VCUarts editorial style guide offers clear, simple guidelines on unique punctuation, spelling and word usage in materials produced by and for VCU School of the Arts. Official VCUarts communications use the Associated Press Stylebook as the standard for any matter of style not covered here.
Reminders on punctuation, terminology and formatting often used at VCUarts.
If in doubt, use lowercase rather than capital letters.
- Lowercase the names of the classes: graduate, senior, junior, sophomore and freshman.
- Lowercase commonwealth when referring to Virginia. Example: VCU is located in the commonwealth of Virginia. State is similarly lowercase in all constructions. Example: She visited the state of Maine last fall.
- Capitalize central when paired with Virginia to describe the region. Example: The Children’s Hospital of Richmond at VCU NICU is the oldest and the newest in Central Virginia as well as the first.
- Capitalize city if part of a proper name, an integral part of an official name or a regularly used nickname. Example: Because of its location on the James, Richmond is often called the River City. Lowercase elsewhere. Example: The city of Richmond plays hosts to numerous festivals in the summer.
- Capitalize class when joined with a year. Example: The Class of 2019 announced its gift to the school.
- Capitalize commencement when referring to the university’s official ceremonies in May and December. Example: VCU will celebrate 3,000 graduates at its May Commencement.
When a generic term is capitalized as part of an official name, the plural used with another name is lowercase. Example: Broad and Belvidere streets, the schools of Nursing and Dentistry
Above all, photo captions should be clear and concise. When assigning a caption to an image, the direction of the image in relation to the description (i.e. left, right, above, below) should always be noted up-front in parentheses.
(Right) Harvy Blanks as Shealy in Jitney. Photo by Joan Marcus. Courtesy of Playbill.
The directions above, below, above left or right, top or bottom right or left can be used if the captions and images appears on the same page. “Below” should never be used.
If the caption is on the page opposite an image, opposite, and opposite top or bottom can be used. Avoid “opposite page” in print.
For images arranged in a grid, use clockwise, clockwise from top, clockwise from left or right and list image captions in the order designated. Never use “counter-clockwise.”
For images in a series, or for photos of people, use left to right.
(Left to right) George Harrison, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr and John Lennon.
In print publications, captions that are overlaid or printed directly beneath a full-page image do not require directions unless referring to a specific person or object.
Omit the Oxford comma unless its inclusion would help clarify a sentence.
- Without serial comma: This comprehensive Cubist exhibition features the work of Picasso, Braque and Léger.
- With serial comma: Her primary tools were her father’s hand-me-downs, acrylic brushes, and painting knives. (The comma is necessary here to clarify that the subject’s brushes and knives are not hand-me-downs.)
Use an em dash (—) to set off an abrupt break or interruption, or to announce a long appositive or summary. Do not set off em dashes with spaces.
He explained the skills—research, writing and public speaking—he expected of his students; She took the test—having studied for three days—and left for winter break.
On a PC, em dashes are created by holding down the CTRL and shift keys and hitting the “-” key. On a Mac, they are created by holding down the option and shift keys and hitting the “-”.
Use an en dash (–) to show span, range or duration. Example: You will find this material in chapters 9–12; The 2019–20 season was our best yet.
If you introduce a span or range with words such as “from” or “between,” do not use the en dash.
Correct: She served as secretary of state from 1996 to 1999.
Incorrect: She served as secretary of state from 1996–1999.
On a PC, en dashes are created by holding down the CTRL key and hitting the “-” key. On a Mac, they are created by holding down the option key and hitting the “-” key.
Use ellipses (…) to indicate where words have been removed from direct quotations. Ellipses within a quotation are set off by spaces: “We took the short cut … and got lost.” Ellipses at the end of a sentence follow the period and are set off by a space on either side: “We figured it would be better to take the bus. … It didn’t save much time.” Do not use ellipses at the beginning or end of a quotation.
As a general rule, a speaker’s words should not be omitted or altered except in cases where their message would seem unclear to the reader or too lengthy for the space. Never omit or change words to alter or skew the speaker’s intended message.
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise. The Windgate Foundation; foundation grants.
Spell out and hyphenate when necessary: Three-quarters of the class attended; A fifth of the class attended. The Anderson is located at 907 ½ Franklin Street.
VCUarts prefers the term first-year student or first year in reference to students that have just begun their education at the school.
If writing out the terms within a quote: freshman is the singular noun and also is used in adjective form. Freshmen is the plural form. Examples: “I was a freshman at VCU.” “My first year, the university welcomed incoming freshmen with a party in Monroe Park.”
When writing about anyone, take the time to ask which pronouns they use, and respect their identity. Don’t guess pronouns. If the person is not available to clarify, refer to their public profile (pronouns may be listed on their social media pages), recent written materials about them, or ask someone who knows them well. However, the most accurate source will always be the subject themselves.
Where possible, use sentence-structured, active headlines. Example: Brandcenter team innovates its way to the top. Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. The one exception is that the first word after a colon is always uppercase in headlines. Always use single quotation marks.
Use to avoid ambiguity. She re-covered the hole. vs. He recovered from the fall. Use to avoid duplicated vowels or triple consonants: anti-inflammatory, shell-like. Use to create two-thought compounds: socio-economic.
–and a compound modifier:
Use to link all the words (except the adverb “very” and all adverbs ending in “-ly”) preceding a noun: a full-time job, a first-period goal, a very good grade, an easily remembered concept. When using a string of modifiers before a noun, put the modifier in quote marks instead of using hyphens, for clarity: He won the “Best Roommate in East Hall” award at reunion.
–in suspensive form:
Suspensive hyphenation takes this form: a 10- to 20-year study; but: a 3-percent to 5-percent chance, a $5 million to $6 million project.
Unless the dictionary makes an exception, do not hyphenate: Decision making takes place on many levels; Fundraising is fun.
Use to separate numerals in odds (he has a 5-1 chance), ratios (the student- teacher ratio is 11-1, she won 3-2), fractions that are spelled out (three-fourths). When large numbers are spelled out as in the beginning of a sentence, use to connect a word ending in “-y” to the next word: Fifty-five (but: three hundred).
–and compound proper nouns:
Avoid using hyphens for dual heritage: Italian American; French Canadian; African American.
Avoid this overused word unless describing a physical collision. Don’t use “impactfulness.”
VCUarts breaks from AP style in our use of italics, due to the wide range of creative work we cover.
Set in italics the titles of feature-length films, books, magazines, newspapers, albums, video games, stage productions, and individual paintings, sculptures or similar artworks.
For short films, magazine and newspaper articles, poems, chapters of a novel, songs, and acts of a play, set the title in quotation marks.
See the section “Writing About Art” for more instructions.
Several VCUarts alumni have received the MacArthur Fellowship, which is awarded by the MacArthur Foundation. The fellowship is granted to individuals who show exceptional creativity in their work and the prospect for still more in the future. Individuals cannot apply for this award; they must be nominated. This fellowship is sometimes called a “genius grant.” Do not refer to it as such in formal materials.
Over generally refers to spatial relationships. Example: She threw the ball over the fence. More than is preferred with numerals. Example: VCU enrolls more than 31,000 students.
Periods and commas always go within quotation marks. Dashes, colons, semicolons, question marks and exclamation points go within quotation marks when they apply to the quoted matter. They go outside when they apply to the whole sentence: “Did you take the test yet?” she asked; He thus defined the “crux of the matter”: equal pay for equal work.
Use single quotation marks in headlines. Quotation marks are not required in formats that identify questions and answers by Q: and A:.
Try to avoid quotations that run over several paragraphs. If a full paragraph of quoted material is followed by a paragraph that continues the quotation, do not place close-quote marks at the end of the first paragraph.
“The professor challenged us,” she said. “I didn’t think I’d pass the final.
“But in the end, I did better than I expected,” she added.
In most cases, you can run the quoted material in a single paragraph.
“The professor challenged us,” she said. “I didn’t think I’d pass the class. But in the end, I did better than I expected.”
If a paragraph ends with a partial quotation or quoted phrase, and the next paragraph continues the quote, place close-quote marks at the end of the first paragraph.
He called the class “the most difficult ever.”
“But in the end,” he said, “it was also the most rewarding.”
If excerpting comments from a quotation, do not put ellipses at the beginning or end of the quotation. Ellipses are only necessary when taking words within a sentence out of a quotation.
E.g., if a quotation reads: “The professor challenged us,” Jane said. “I didn’t think I’d pass the class. It was the most difficult ever. But in the end, I have to say, it was the most rewarding,” it can be excerpted thus: “In the end … it was the most rewarding,” Jane said.
Never omit words if the change will alter the speaker’s intended message.
As a best practice, the cleanest, shortest working URL should be used in print pieces, websites and on stationery. Most sites, including vcu.edu addresses no longer require the www (even if they appear on the landing page). The prefixes www, http:// and https:// can be removed as long as the URL works without them. However, because some sites do still require these prefixes, the URL should be tested in multiple browsers (IE, Safari, Firefox and Chrome) before removing any part of the address.
- The same rule applies to suffixes such as /index.html, which appear in the browser bar but aren’t needed to access the site. Example: http://www.ugrad.vcu.edu/why/index.html can become vcu.edu/why.
- If the website if part of a list and some URLs in the list require www and others don’t, include www in all entries.
- For print publications when the URL does not fit entirely on one line, break it into two or more lines without adding a hyphen or other punctuation mark, and carry any punctuation in the URL to the second line.
The URL should always be the last item in a sentence. Example: To make a donation to the school, contact Troy Smith at (804) 555-5555, or make a gift online at support.vcu.edu.
- Do not use http:// or https:// in URLs that do not require it.
On websites, use a hyperlink versus spelling out the URL in text. However, be mindful of users who rely on screen reader programs to navigate the internet. Hyperlinks that appear simply as Read more or Click here are not helpful, as the user cannot easily determine where the link leads. Instead, distinguish the link text with a descriptive term, such as Read more about Theresa Pollak or Buy West Side Story tickets online.
Standard practices for writing the names of faculty, staff and departments.
Capitalize academic titles when used before the name: Professor of English Daniel Jones; President Michael Rao. They are not capitalized when used after the name, except for endowed chairs: Charles Darwin, professor of natural history; Charles Darwin, the Beagle Professor of Natural History. Do not mention doctorate degrees (PhD, EdD, JD, MD, etc.) unless pertinent to a story or list; the honorific Dr. should only appear before a licensed medical doctor’s name. Dr. Michael Crichton.
Emeritus and emeriti (male); emerita and emeritae (female). Always follows the noun: She is professor emerita of music. Capitalize before the name and as part of endowed title: Professor Emeritus Frank Smith, or Frank Smith, John Smith Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus.
On second reference refer to people by last name: John Smith (M.F.A. ’99) had an exhibition at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in May. Smith’s work is reflective of his Virginia roots.
Those who hold a Ph.D. do not get Dr. in front of their names. The honorific is reserved for licensed medical doctors.
Five VCUarts programs use plus signs in their names: Dance + Choreography, Fashion Design + Merchandising, Painting + Printmaking, Photography + Film, Sculpture + Extended Media.
Do not use in text unless part of branding; avoid and/or; if subject uses the phrasing in quote, write out the word slash offset with hyphens. “It’s a theatre-slash-restaurant,” she said.
Capitalize when referring to the southern region of the country; lowercase when referring to a direction: The wind blew from the south. The American Civil War was between the North and the South.
Academic Programs and Degrees
How to write about general academic topics, such as majors and alumni.
Capitalize titles of academic courses, but not majors (unless a proper noun is included in the name): Fundamentals of Modern Literature. Including informal names of courses: Psych 101, Intro Psych.
In standard copy, capitalize abbreviated degrees and use periods (B.A., B.S., and Ph.D.). When tagging alumni names with degree and year, eliminate periods (see “alumni, names and degrees” section for more).
Lowercase cum laude, magna cum laude, and with honors, as well as bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate. Capitalization is only used when referring to the full title of a degree: Bachelor of Arts, Master of Fine Arts, Doctor of Philosophy.
Do not capitalize academic majors (history major, chemistry major) unless a major includes a proper noun (English major, American studies major).
VCU School of the Arts is accredited by:
- National Association of Schools of Art and Design
- National Association of Schools of Dance
- National Association of Schools of Music
- National Association of Schools of Theatre
- Virginia Department of Education
- Council for Interior Design Accreditation
- National Council for Accreditation for Teacher Education
- Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges
All visual arts degree programs are accredited by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design.
Music education is accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music, the Virginia Department of Education, and the National Council for Accreditation for Teacher Education.
Theatre education is accredited by the National Council for Accreditation for Teacher Education.
VCUarts prefers the use of the gender neutral terms graduate or alum. However, when applicable, writers may use alumnus (male), alumna (female), alumni (group) or the informal alums.
On first reference of alumni by name, list as Name (Degree ’Year). Following that, use only their last name without the degree tag.
Only list the most recent and highest degree completed by the graduate at VCUarts. Do not use periods for degrees in parentheses, and be sure the year’s apostrophe points to the left: Jane Doe (BFA ’18). Department gets worked into the story; not listed with degree.
Although he studied sculpture at VCUarts, John Doe (MFA ’90) went on to dance with the New York City Ballet.
Students who have completed at least 24 credit hours are considered alumni, so be aware that the term alum, alumnus or alumna is not necessarily synonymous with graduate. In this case, use attended: Joe Smith, who attended VCUarts, was present.
Not “Arts Foundation” or “Art Foundations” as it is commonly mistaken. Art Foundation, known also as AFO, is the VCUarts program of foundation courses all first-year students must complete to gain entry into the school’s fine art and design departments including: Art Education, Communication Arts, Craft/Material Studies, Fashion Design, Graphic Design, Interior Design, Kinetic Imaging, Painting + Printmaking, Photography + Film, and Sculpture + Extended Media.
Articles and print pieces published by VCUarts bolds the names of alumni on first reference.
Jayanta Jenkins (BFA ’94) always wanted to be a creative problem solver, to manage the nuts and bolts of a commercial art space.
VCU has one college and 13 schools:
- College of Humanities and Sciences (has.vcu.edu)
- Richard T. Robertson School of Media and Culture (masscomm.vcu.edu)
- School of World Studies (has.vcu.edu/wld)
- School of Allied Health Professions (sahp.vcu.edu)
- School of the Arts (arts.vcu.edu)
- School of Business (business.vcu.edu)
- School of Dentistry (dentistry.vcu.edu)
- School of Education (soe.vcu.edu)
- School of Engineering (egr.vcu.edu)
- Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs (wilder.vcu.edu)
- School of Medicine (medschool.vcu.edu)
- School of Nursing (nursing.vcu.edu)
- School of Pharmacy (pharmacy.vcu.edu)
- School of Social Work (socialwork.vcu.edu)
Note that the School of the Arts on second reference should be VCUarts. Do not capitalize when referring to VCU colleges, schools and departments in a more general sense. When a generic term is capitalized as part of an official name, the plural used with another name is lowercase. Example: the schools of Nursing and Dentistry. With the exception of several VCUarts departments, VCU department and office names do not take ampersands; write out “and.” For a full listing of VCU departments, view the A to Z index at atoz.vcu.edu.
Refers to the university’s graduation ceremonies. Lowercase unless in formal usage: She attended commencement; She spoke at Virginia Commonwealth University’s 221st Commencement. Do not refer to the ceremonies by season (spring, winter) but by month. Example: VCU will celebrate 3,000 graduates at its May Commencement.
Do not capitalize the names of school or college studies, fields of study, major areas or subjects (except languages) unless a specific course is being referred to. Example: He is studying dance and English.
See the “alumni, names and degrees” section for more.
Degrees offered at VCUarts
B.A. Bachelor of Arts
B.F.A. Bachelor of Fine Arts
B.M. Bachelor of Music
M.A. Master of Arts
M.A.E. Master of Arts Education
M.F.A. Master of Fine Arts (In formal documents include after names since this is a terminal degree in fine arts.)
M.I.S. Master of Interdisciplinary Studies
M.M. Master of Music
Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy (Do not use courtesy title Dr. before names, which is reserved for medical doctors.)
Lowercase. A university fellow; a research fellowship; a Fountainhead fellow. But: a Fountainhead Fellowship.
We promote VCUarts as “the top ranked public art and design school in the country” or “the #1 public arts school in the country”; however, this fact has been surmised from the official rankings by U.S. News & World Report, which does not separately list public schools.
- The rankings come from U.S. News & World Report’s peer evaluation survey of graduate school programs.
- We have held our #1 public position since 2005, but the rankings are not published annually.
- You can review the most recent rankings information on the VCUarts website.
At VCU, service-learning refers to an intentional teaching strategy that engages students in organized service activities and guided reflection. The service activities benefit the community and, in combination with reflection and other classroom-based learning activities, enhance the academic curriculum of participating students. Always gets a hyphen even when used without being followed by a noun: VCUarts faculty members Melanie Buffington and Kristen Caskey were selected as 2014–2015 Service-Learning Faculty Fellows. Service-learning at Virginia Commonwealth University is an educational experience in which students participate in an organized service activity that meets community-identified needs.
University Locations and Events
Writing about VCU campus, its facilities and regular events.
Not “the Anderson Gallery.” The former VCUarts art gallery at 901 ½ E. Franklin Ave. closed in 2015. The building is now referred to as the Anderson, a dedicated exhibition and program space for VCUarts students. In references to both the new and former venue, the should be written in lowercase (unless it begins a sentence).
Capitalize the names of university structures when using their full titles. For a complete listing of VCU buildings visit maps.vcu.edu.
VCU has two main campuses: Monroe Park Campus and MCV Campus. Do not use the campus names unless needed to note a location.
The 30-minute information session is followed by a walking tour of the Monroe Park Campus.
The university’s campus reflects the character of its host city by mixing modern, high-tech amenities with historical buildings and small-town charm.
The university also has branch campuses and satellite locations in Northern Virginia; Doha, Qatar; Charlottesville, Va.; and Charles City County, Va. In referring to these campuses and locations, the first reference in text copy should be the complete title.
VCU Rice Rivers Center
VCU Medical Center at Stony Point
VCU School of the Arts in Qatar
VCU School of Medicine Inova Campus
VCU School of Pharmacy Inova Campus
VCU School of Pharmacy University of Virginia Division
The Institute for Contemporary Art at Virginia Commonwealth University (or VCU) on first reference, ICA after that. The building has been named the Markel Center and can be referred to as such when writing about the structure itself.
The Hamad bin Khalifa Symposium on Islamic Art is a biennial conference co-sponsored by VCUarts Qatar, VCUarts and the Qatar Foundation. The conference is held every two years in various locations of historical significance to Islamic art and design.
A design lab at VCUarts, created as a joint project by the departments of Graphic Design, Fashion Design and Interior Design. It is located at 205 East Broad Street. Often stylized with lowercase middle and broad and uppercase Of (with the acronym mOb), though it can be more traditionally capitalized and abbreviated in formal materials. Projects developed by middle Of broad should be described in general terms like “projects,” “activities,” “artworks,” “exhibitions” and the like, instead of the lab’s term “mObjOb.”
Recruitment event attended by undergraduate admissions team because VCUarts is a member of the National Portfolio Day Association (NPDA). VCUarts usually hosts a NPDA event each year.
Founder of VCUarts (1899–2002); the Pollak building is named in her honor. Note spelling (not Pollock, Polock, etc).
Use residence hall, not dormitory or dorm, when referencing one of VCU’s residence halls.
VCUarts Qatar hosts the biennial design conference Tasmeem Doha, or simply Tasmeem for short, which presents contemporary topics on art and design and brings international designers, artists, academics and industry professionals in for a week of innovation and dialogue.
Not “Student Commons.”
VCUarts in Qatar is also acceptable. Do not use “VCUQ,” “sister campus” or “sister school.” VCUarts Qatar is a branch campus of Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts in Richmond, Virginia. It is located in Education City, Doha, Qatar. It was established in 1998 through a partnership with Qatar Foundation.
The university’s official name is Virginia Commonwealth University. On second reference and in headlines, VCU is preferred.
For websites, spell out Virginia Commonwealth University on the first reference for each index (or section) page. Virginia Commonwealth University does not require a callout (VCU) following the first reference to be abbreviated in subsequent references.
Do not use periods in VCU. When Virginia Commonwealth University is followed by a college, school or department name, the full name may or may not take the possessive form. For example, the Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts or Virginia Commonwealth University’s School of the Arts.
When Virginia Commonwealth University or VCU is followed by the name of a center, institute or program, Virginia Commonwealth University is not possessive. Example: Virginia Commonwealth University Rice Rivers Center or VCU Pauley Heart Center.
Do not capitalize “university” when it stands alone and refers to Virginia Commonwealth University. Drop “university” from the beginning of internal names when preceded by Virginia Commonwealth University but keep “university” when preceded by VCU.
- Virginia Commonwealth University Student Commons
- Virginia Commonwealth University Conference and Scheduling Services
- VCU University Student Commons
- VCU University Conference and Scheduling Services
References to the Medical College of Virginia and Richmond Professional Institute as separate institutions may occur only in historical context before 1968, the year that Virginia Commonwealth University was established.
- A graduate who obtained an M.D. in 1949 is an alumnus of MCV.
- A graduate who received a B.F.A. in 1961 is an alumnus of RPI.
- All graduates after 1968 are alumni of VCU.
The Medical College of Virginia does not exist as a stand-alone entity (except in historical context before 1968), and references using only these initials are incorrect (i.e., VCU/MCV, MCV/VCU or MCV). However, the MCV Foundation and MCV Alumni Association are exceptions to this rule.
VCU Medical Center refers specifically to the hospital and clinics in Downtown Richmond. Spell out Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center the first time you refer to it. On subsequent references, VCU Medical Center or medical center is acceptable. Do not use “the” in front of VCU Medical Center unless it is followed by a department or division name.
- At VCU Medical Center, we’re striving to become America’s safest health system.
- In 2011, VCU Medical Center’s Virginia Coordinated Care program established the Complex Care Clinic.
- The VCU Medical Center Department of Performance Improvement implemented “Safety First, Every Day.”
VCU Health is the primary brand identity for the health-related components of VCU, including schools, hospitals, centers, institutes, practices, health plans and clinical programs or services. Use this name unless you are referring to the specific buildings or location of the Medical Center. VCU Health does not need to spelled out as “Virginia Commonwealth University” on first reference; the name should only be written as VCU Health, never “VCUH” or “VCUHealth.”
Many of the departments and divisions within the medical center also have teaching components within the health sciences schools. The context should drive the usage.
- Students in the School of Medicine’s Department of Internal Medicine participate in a collaborative curriculum with the Department of Theatre.
- The VCU Medical Center Department of Internal Medicine provides patient care in cardiology, nephrology and rheumatology.
Use proper name on first reference or in letters from the dean. Use VCUarts on second reference. Do not use “SOTA” as an abbreviation for the School of the Arts or VCUarts. Avoid writing VCUarts as a possessive noun.
Writing About Art
How to write about creative works at VCUarts.
Hyphenate and, in most cases, lowercase when used generically or following an individual’s name: The department had an artist-in-residence during each of the past five spring quarters. However, since artist-in-residence is a formal title rather than an occupational title, they should be capitalized before a person’s name: When will Artist-in-Residence Scott Adams give his lecture? Capitalize, also, when used as part of a formal name: William Gaskill, Granada Artist-in-Residence.
Use the spelling theater in all cases, except where theatre is explicitly used: The VCUarts Department of Theatre; the Altria Theater.
When writing about artwork, clarity is of paramount importance. AP style mandates that all works of art, from albums to video games, be framed with quotation marks. However, at VCUarts, where the titles of multiple different kinds of artworks appear in writing, numerous quotation marks can looked cluttered and confusing. Therefor, VCUarts follows an alternative formatting scheme based on the “size” of a work.
- Use quotation marks for smaller works that are generally part of a larger whole (such as poems, songs, scenes in a play, television episodes and short films).
- Example: The T. S. Eliot poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”; “Getting Better” by The Beatles; The Broadway rendition of “Wait for It.”
- Place in italics comprehensive or standalone works of a larger scale, or works that collect smaller titles (such as novels, albums, sculpture, a series of paintings, newspapers, television series and films).
- Example: Anne Sexton’s free verse poetry collection Live or Die; The New York Times; Picasso’s Guernica; Parks & Recreation.
- Finally, simply capitalize the organizations, venues, events or media platforms that host or publish a work of art (such as galleries, record companies, film studios, exhibitions and websites).
- Example: The Reynolds Gallery; 1708 Gallery; The Tribeca Film Festival; Sink/Swim Press; TED; YouTube.
Image labels or captions for works of art must include the title, the artist’s name, and who provided the image or took the photo. If the entire caption is in italics, it is permissible to put the title of the work in quotes, regardless of form.
“Unknown Specimen” by Kimberly Barnes. Courtesy of the artist.
If available, include the year it was produced or published, the media it was created with, its size, or where it currently resides (a museum, private collections, etc.).
“Comedian” by Maurizio Cattelan (2019). Fresh banana, duct tape. 7 x 10 in. Private collection. Photo by Sarah Andelman.
In the above format, media should always be written in lowercase unless the material is trademarked (i.e. Plexiglass).