courtesy titles

Refer to both men and women by first and last name, without courtesy titles, on first reference: Susan Smith or Robert Smith. On second reference refer to both men and women by last name, without courtesy titles, in subsequent references. Use the courtesy titles Mr.MissMs. or Mrs. only in direct quotations.

When it is necessary to distinguish between two people who use the same last name, as in married couples or brothers and sisters, use the first and last name, without courtesy title.

In cases where a person’s gender is not clear from the first name or from the story’s context, indicate the gender by using he or she in subsequent reference.

In the case of transgender individuals, use their preferred pronoun. If that preference is not expressed, use the pronoun consistent with the way the individual lives publicly.

Note: some professional artists and performers who are transgender will specify their preferred pronouns on their websites; be sure to check.

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